Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis, one of the leading causes of debility, and the most common age-related chronic disease. In the United States alone, OA affects over 32 million people and is expected to increase as the population ages over the next several decades. In general, while arthritis can refer to nearly 100 different rheumatic diseases in and around the joint, osteoarthritis is distinguished from inflammatory-driven arthritic conditions and is sometimes called degenerative joint disease or wear-and-tear arthritis. While this distinction is still a fairly accurate description that adequately differentiates OA from conditions like rheumatoid arthritis (RA), research over the past few decades suggests that underlying inflammatory pathways play a significant role in OA as well. In this monograph, we will first overview the pathophysiology that results in the classic cartilage damage of osteoarthritis, including the cellular and inflammatory processes at work in the affected joints. We will then turn our attention to describing lifestyle and other non-pharmacological therapies used to treat osteoarthritis, discussing their proposed mechanisms and relative efficacy. These therapies, when implemented timely and appropriately, may greatly improve joint health and mobility; and allow many patients to delay or avoid costly surgical interventions.